6.1 垃圾填埋场的除臭综合方案 Odor control in landfills

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气味来源于本身具有很难闻气味的不同的化学物质,这些气味化学物质有些是本身存在于自然界中,有的是要在特定的环境和条件下形成的。例如最常见的气味问题来源于微生物活动形成的气体。我们知道,微生物总体分为有氧和无氧两种。它们的活动都能给我们的环境产生气味问题,但无氧生物活动引起的气味更加复杂和难以对付,
要有效地控制气味,不但要有有效的产品,而且还要了解气味的真正来源,采取防止与控制相结合的综合治理措施。

垃圾场的气味问题是一个综合的气味问题,必须综合利用下面的措施方能达到事半功倍的效果 Odor problem in landfill is a comprehensive issue, so a couple of measures have to be coordinated to solve the tough problem:

• 长期或中期覆盖:在垃圾场,主要的气味来源是垃圾体内无氧生物过程中产生的无氧气体如甲烷,硫化氢气体等,不但它们本身有难闻的气味,而且它们在膨胀溢出时,会携带出垃圾体内的其它气味源,如无氧过程的半成品挥发性有机物,如挥发性脂肪酸,和其它腐臭气味。所以,如能用地工油布覆盖暂时完成的垃圾表面,或用我们的长期覆盖产品覆盖(比油布覆盖成本要更低)能大大减少大面积的气味问题;其次,就是覆盖渗漏液收集池和处理池,这也是一大气味源;Long term or intermediate cover: In landfill, the main odor issue is resulted from the anaerobic biologic process. Not only the biogases generated by anaerobic process have malodor, but also they will bring out other odor components such as the intermediates of fermentation such as VFAs when they emitting. So, if tarps or our long term cover materials can be used to cover the surface of the garbage, the odor problem can be reduced greatly for the big area. In addition, the leachate collection or treatment pools also need to be covered.

• 抽取气味:然而,覆盖垃圾表面,只解决了气味溢出问题的一半,因为当这些覆盖层下的气味积累到一定的压力时,它们会冲破覆盖而溢出,并携带出垃圾体内的其它气味源。所以,如能在垃圾体内布设气体收集管道或从表面覆盖油布下抽取收集这些积累的气味气体,就可以根本上消除这一最大的气味源;

Gas extraction: You only finish half of the work after covering the garbage because, the biogases generated by anaerobic process will break the cover when the biogas is accumulated to reach a certain pressure. So, gas collection pipes need to be set in garbage or underneath the tarps and collect the biogas by sucking from the collection pipes.

• 每日覆盖工作面:在垃圾场,每日工作面是气味发生的又一大源头。所以,在每日收工时,用我公司的日覆盖产品对工作面进行每日覆盖,是一个切实有效的措施;Daily cover your working face: Working face is one of main odor sources in landfills. So, daily cover materials need to be used end of a day.

• 工作面的喷雾的处理;对每日工作面除了收工时的每日覆盖,在白天堆放期间,它也会发生很强的气味污染环境,所以用喷雾系统对工作面进行点源喷雾气味控制,可达到比较理想的效果;Misting at working face: During day time, before cover the “fresh” garbage using daily cover materials, misting treatment needs to be used to control the odor from the working face.

• 垃圾表面,道路及车辆的表面药物施用:对工作面和垃圾场的垃圾车辆行驶的道路,可用我们的生物产品系统进行表面喷洒,让产品中的细菌和攻击气味的产生。对出场的垃圾卡车也要进行表面喷洒气味控制产品;Topical applications for working face, garbage trucks, and traffic road in the landfill using our bacterial and enzyme products can prevent from the formation of odor.

• 气味吸收膜;更加完善的防止气味溢出的方法是用吸附膜覆盖垃圾场覆盖的边缘。这种吸附膜吸附气味的原理是因为其中的吸附物质的巨大的表面积,如一小勺这样的物质的表面积等于一个足球场的面积。Absorbents: Zeolytes–Used in Absorbing chemistry in Smoke stacks. Surface area for absorption of one teaspoon = football field.

• 外围喷雾系统:“外围喷嘴系统”可做为气味控制的一个补充性措施,但有时,由于障碍物引起的湍流/涡流,导致气味在垃圾场的边缘或上空回旋,这时,“外围喷嘴系统”显得太消极了,所以不少的垃圾场采用了我们的斯瓦特雾炮HF35群,布设于垃圾场的四周来组成“外围雾炮系统”。渗漏液收集池也可用“外围喷嘴系统”,如下图 Perimeter misting system: Perimeter nozzle system could be a supplement measurement, but it seems too passive when turbulence and eddy currents resulting in odor problem leeward of landfill. So, hurricane cannons can be used to comprise the perimeter cannon system. However, perimeter nozzle system can be used in leachate collection pools.

为了正确使用气味控制产品:To correctly apply odor control products:

1 必须清楚地了解气味活动: You must recognize when the odors are created

• 了解与垃圾运营活动,如垃圾营运的高峰时间和路线,可以有效地安排流动喷洒;Understand the garbage traffic activities, such as the rush time to garbage traffic and the paths so that mobile misting could be proper arranged;

• 了解垃圾的来源和种类,如填埋的是底泥,它会发出更浓的气味,需要表面覆盖喷洒相结合;Understand the types of garbage, such as sludge that has much stronger odor than regular city garbage, so that we can combine cover, topical spray and misting.

• 了解垃圾翻挖的时间安排,因为垃圾在推挖时会带出很多的气味;Understand the schedule for moving or digging old garbage when a lot of odor components will be emitted.

2 必须清楚地了解气象条件: You must understand the meteorologic condition:

• 了解空气的温度,以调整喷雾时间和浓度;Understand the temperature so that we can adjust the misting concentration and schedule;

• 了解每天的风向,风力,及涡流产生的强弱,以便指导调整喷雾机器的置和方向,; Understand wind direction and strength and amount of turbulence and eddy currents so that we can adjust the location and direction of misting;

• 了解对流层原理,意识到,外围喷嘴喷雾系统不能充分让气味控制产品接触垃圾体溢出的臭味气味,因为垃圾填场上的热气流会直接把臭味气体送向高空,所喷雾的有效位置应是直接对着垃圾填场的上面,使气味控制产品直接与臭味气体一起上升,而达到有效的混合; Understand the troposphere principle and realize that the perimeter system is not good way to let misting contact with the odor emission because the thermal on landfills push the odor air upward into higher attitude. So, it is better to land the misting machines on the top of landfill so that the odor control products could be well mixed with odor air before getting into higher attitude.

• 了解下风向涡流区的气味状况,以调整喷雾时间和浓度;Understand the turbulence and eddies and make investigation for odor complain from citizens so that we can adjust the misting concentration and schedule.

• 了解逆温层的产生区域和时间,以增加喷雾的时间和浓度。我们知道,逆温层是在早晚,春冬时节为多见,所以,人们通常认为不用喷雾气味控制产品的时间,可能反而是更需要喷雾的时间。比如冬天,虽空气气温很低,但垃圾内部深处的温度还是足以有一定的微生物活动,如加上冬季逆温的形成,这样空气中很有可能会积累很多的气味物质,所以冬天并不一定意谓着无气味处理的必要性。还有就是夜间,如有逆温层形成,且居民都回到家中,所以这种夜间如不采取气味控制措施,对居民的健康是有很大的危害的。Understand the inversion layer so that we can increase the misting concentration and extend misting time. We know, inversion layer used to be formed during night time and winter and spring seasons, so, although the time when temperature is lower people thought it is no necessary to mist odor control products, it might be important time for us to use odor control products because the odors are been accumulating and floating in the air due to the inversion layer.

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