2.5 气味源 Odor sources

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2. 堆肥场 Composting

无氧微生物都降解蛋白质中的含硫氨基酸(甲硫氨酸)时,会产生如前所述的气味物质。Odor generation during post digestion processing of biosolids occurs due to the anaerobic breakdown of undigested residual proteins made up of sulfur containing amino acids such as methionine and, to a lesser degree, cysteine.

 

3. 在垃圾转运站和废物回收中心 In transfer stations & recycling centers

在垃圾中转站发现的气味大部份来源于废物分解早期阶段产生的气味。在垃圾被转运到垃圾场前,这些气味分子从堆放废物的或准备转运的地面散发出来。Odors found in transfer stations largely come from the breakdown of the waste in its early stages of decomposition. The odor molecules are escaping from the waste on the floor and in areas where the waste is being loaded onto rail cars or on waste trucks prior to transport to the landfill.

 

4. 在被污染的底泥 In contaminated sediments

许多被化学污染物污染的底泥会产生气味问题。碳氢污染物往往有硫的气味。煤工艺操作在数年后释放的煤焦油,农药,PCBs(多氯联苯) 和一些非水相液体常常带有一种独特的气味。被碳酸, 萘(卫生球) 和类似的碳氢化合物污染的底泥也有很难闻的气味。当转移底泥时,法律规定要对空气进行监测,在现场的一定的间距观察并测试。Many contaminated sediments have odors that are the result of the chemistry which has contaminated the sediments. Hydrocarbon contaminated waste may have odors of sulfur. Coal processing operations have, over the years, released lots of coal tar, pesticides, PCBT’s and dense nonaqueous phase liquids which often carry a uniquely bad odor. Sediments contaminated with creosote, naphthalene, and similar hydrocarbons also have bad odors. When removing contaminated sediments, regulations may require focused ambient-air monitoring, field observations of odors at regular intervals, and focused odor testing.

 

5. 在废水处理厂 In wastewater treatment plants

市政和工业废水收集和处理系统有很复杂的来自生物降解过程产生的气味成份。主要是来源于含硫和氮的有机物的无氧降解过程。来自于市政废水产生的气体常叫下水道气体。它们包括氮气,一氧化氮,二氧化氮,硫化氢,甲烷,氨气,和二氧化碳。无氧的生物过程往往导致一种恶性循环,因为它会帮助浮渣和污泥的形成,导致氧气的进一步隔离,从而使无氧生物过程的加剧而产生更多的无氧生物气体。A wide variety of odor-producing substances are found in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment and collection systems, usually as the result of biological activity. Most odors arise from the anaerobic (low oxygen) decomposition of organic matter containing sulfur or nitrogen. Gas produced from domestic wastewater is sometimes called sewer gas and commonly includes hydrogen sulfide, methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide. Sewer gas may also contain build-up of wastewater solids can result in the formation of scum or sludge which can further inhibit a sufficient inward diffusion of oxygen, again resulting in anaerobic conditions which favor the production of these odor-causing chemicals. in anaerobic conditions which favor the production of these odor-causing chemicals.

 

6. 工业加工过程 Industrial processes

很多的现代工业的生产原料和加工过程产生的有害气体,如象药味,化学品味,作呕的刺激性味,腐烂的肉味,令人作呕的气味等等,这些气味或聚集在厂房内,或通过烟囱排放到大气中。如在造纸厂,挥发性有机酸常因为无氧细菌的生长而积累在它的集水池系统。For example, Paper mill systems: VFAs often accumulate in mill systems as a result of anaerobic bacterial growth.

 

7. 人群聚集的公共室内场所 Crowed public indoor places

人群较聚集的公共场所,如公厕,车站,大会场,商场集市,学校等较封密的室内场所,会因排泄物嗅味,人们抽烟,呼出较多的二氧化碳,混杂的体味,和各种食物及商品的气味造成严重的气味问题 In those cases such as public convenience places, transportation stations, market, schools, there are some odor from human waste, smoking, body smell, odors of food, commodities.

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