2.2 气味的定量表达方法 The quantitative expression of odor

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4. 气味特点 Odor Character

气味的特点,又指“气味的性质”,它以标准的描述语言来表示。气味的性质可以以味觉,感觉,和气味描述符为特征。比如气味的特点和性质可描述为“闻起来像…”或“感觉像…”。嗅辨员也可以描述被定义的不同气味性质的相应强度,所以气味特点是客观的。The character of an odor, also referred to as “odor quality,” is reported using standard descriptor lists. Odors are characterized using a referencing vocabulary for Taste, Sensation, and Odor Descriptors. The Trigeminal Nerve (Fifth Cranial Nerve), located throughout the nasal cavity and the upper palate, and other nerves sense the presence of some odors (i.e. “feels like…” vs. “smells like…”). Assessors also report relative strengths of the different characters identified. So, odor character is Objective.

• 味觉描述符Taste Descriptors

味觉的感应就是对一定气味的评价。有4个被认可的味觉描述符,它们是咸,甜,苦,酸。The perception of taste is experienced in the evaluation of certain odors. The four (4) recognized taste descriptors are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.

• 感觉描述符-“感觉像…”Sensation Descriptors-“feels like…”

有8个常用的感觉描述符,它们包括:痒,麻,暖,灼烧感,刺激,敏感,冷和金属的Eight (8) common sensation descriptors that can be reported include: Itching, Tingling, Warm, Burning, Pungent, Sharp, Cool, and Metallic.

• 气味描述符“闻起来像…”Odor Descriptors -“smells like…”

有8种任可的气味描述符分类,它们是蔬菜的,水果的,植物的,药味的,化学的,鱼腥的,讨厌的,和泥土的。此外,在每一个分类中还有它们的特殊的子气味描述符集。Eight (8) recognized odor descriptor categories, including Vegetable, Fruity, Floral, Medicinal, Chemical, Fishy, Offensive, and Earthy, are illustrated as an “odor wheel”. Specific descriptors within each of these odor categories are presented in the subsequent diagram

 

味觉,感觉,和气味描述符可按照气味的强度分成从0到5的级别(从弱到强)。 Taste, sensation, and odor descriptors can all be ranked in relative intensity on a 0 to 5 scale (faint to strong).

 

5. 快乐因子 Hedonic Tone (HT)

快乐因子(HT)是对气味样品的快乐或不快乐的量度。快乐因子来自“快乐主义者的”这个词。嗅辨员用他或她对气味的记忆和经历来定义快乐因子的参考尺度,因为在训练期间,嗅辨员会获得他们个体对气味的记忆和经验。因此,快乐因子是主观的。但是他是一种常用的对气味强度分级的方法,这个级别尺度是包括下面所示的21点:

不快乐-10 --------------------- 0 ----------------- +10 快乐

HT is a measure of the pleasantness or unpleasantness of an odor sample. Hedonic Tone is derived from the word “hedonistic”, the Greek word hedone meaning pleasure. An assessor uses her/his personal experience and memories of odors as a hedonic tone referencing scale. During training, assessors become aware of their individual odor experience and memory referencing. So, HT is Subjective. An arbitrary but common scale for ranking odor by hedonic tone is the use of a 21 point scale:

Unpleasant -10 --------------------- 0 ----------------- +10 Pleasant

 

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